The layout or format of the pages of ancient Egyptian scrolls can look surprisingly "modern", suggesting that the relationship of text and image remained unchanged for thousands of years. In these three examples of The Papyrus of Ani, we see
|the image in a separate box with text in columns|
|the text freely wrapped around the images|
|the image as full page historiated initial|
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See an Arabic illuminated manuscript
See a 15th century illuminated Book of Hours
Copyright © 1996 Colophon Page. Text by Richard Minsky, images are from The Egyptian Book of the Dead, published 1994 by Chronicle Books San Francisco, and copyright 1994 by James Wasserman.